Source: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

As a child completes kindergarten, he or she should demonstrate the following skills.

Listening Skills

  • Understands age-appropriate stories when read out loud
  • Follows simple conversation.
  • Follows simple oral directions in order, such as “Pick a book, and sit down.”
  • Understands what is being taught in class

Talking Skills

  • Answers simple questions like, “Did you eat lunch?”
  • Answers open-ended questions like, “What did you do in school today?”
  • Retells stories, parts of stories or events
  • Talks about things that happened during the day
  • Asks questions and makes comments
  • Takes turns and stays on topic when talking
  • Shows interest in what others are saying
  • Begins conversations freely

Reading Skills

  • Understands that reading a book in English occurs from front to back, top to bottom and left to right.
  • Knows that spoken words are comprised of speech sounds
  • Identifies words that rhyme like cat and hat, brown and town
  • Knows that some words begin with the same sound like sun, sand and soup
  • Distinguishes uppercase and lowercase letters
  • Comprehends that each letter represents speech sounds
  • Knows some sight words like the, she, cat and with
  • “Reads” picture books from memory
  • Tells a story by looking at pictures in a book

Writing Skills

  • Prints first and last name
  • Write uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet
  • Draws pictures that tell a story and can use words about the picture

If your child has not established the skills listed, you may want to make an appointment for a speech-language evaluation.